Sommaire: Ce commentaire apporte quelques nuances au survol historiographique de David Meren en diminuant la portée des lacunes identifiées. L’article attire aussi l’attention sur des études traditionnellement peu prises en compte par les grandes fresques de l’histoire des relations internationales canadiennes, mais dont les résultats devraient figurer dans la perspective plus englobante dont il esquisse les contours.
Abstract: This commentary provides nuance to David Meren’s historiographical overview, downplaying the seriousness of the gaps noted by the author. It also draws attention to authors who have received traditionally less attention in the broader area of the history of Canadian international relations, but who should be included within the more encompassing course charted by the article.
Écoutez l’entrevue sur l’article et la notion des droits de l’enfant donnée à l’émission 3600 secondes d’histoire, le 25 février 2016 à CHYZ, la radio des étudiants de l’Université Laval ICI.
Résumé: À la fin de juin 1931, douze hommes et femmes noirs venus de trois continents se rendirent à Genève pour une Conférence sur l’enfance africaine conviée par l’Union internationale de secours aux enfants. Les antécédents, les motivations et les termes des engagements respectifs de la douzaine de sujets des colonies ainsi que plus de 200 Occidentaux sont étudiés pour découvrir des sujets débouchant sur des impasses, des ententes, des différences reconnues, et de dresser le portrait des possibilités d’action que l’universalisme de l’entre-deux-guerres a pu offrir aux sujets coloniaux. En examinant les biographies ultérieures de ces participants, cet article tente d’évaluer l’impact qu’eut le nouveau discours des droits des enfants sur les pratiques et les identités du continent africain.
“Uses of the Notion of Children’s Rights by Colonial Populations: the Conference on African Children of 1931”
Abstract: Towards the end of June 1931, twelve Black men and women from three continents came to Geneva for a Conference on African children organised by the Save the Children International Union. This study of the antecedents, the motivations and the terms of the respective commitments of this dozen of colonial subjects with more than two hundred western participants uncovers topics of agreement, deadlocks, and of acknowledgements of differences. It identifies the possibilities of actions offered by the language of universality to these Black participants and the people they represented. By examining their subsequent careers, this article also attempts at assessing the impact of the new discourse on the rights of children on practices and identities on the African continent.
Plan de l’article
- Invitations et hésitations : l’admission de « quelques rares africains »
- Les droits des enfants, idiome d’un réformisme libéral et colonial : « la délicate question de l’égalité raciale »
- Les droits des enfants à l’épreuve de la critique économique et politique des empires
- Itinéraires post-coloniaux du langage des droits des enfants : Addis Abeba, Kingston, Harlem, Londres et ailleurs
My name is Carlos Uriel Contreras Flores, and I am Professor Dominique Marshall’s Research Assistant for this summer 2015. She has named me the main administrator for the Canadian Network on Humanitarian Aid’s website. After the “Second Canadian Workshop on the History of Humanitarian Aid”, which will take place at Carleton University in Ottawa this weekend, I will be creating a new site for the network according to the ideas, suggestions and preferences of its members.
I am a Mexican undergraduate student coming from Tecnologico de Monterrey Puebla Campus, and I study International Relations. During my undergraduate studies I have won prizes for literature works, been awarded several times as the best student on my bachelor degree, and been elected president of the International Relations Student Society. I was also the president of the organizing committee of the Simposio de Asuntos Internacionales y Politica Exterior (International Affairs and Foreign Policy Symposium) a major event held in Tecnologico de Monterrey Puebla Campus in 2013. Topics regarding international cooperation, the reform of the United Nations and the fight against human trafficking were part of the event. Several academic personalities, functionaries and politicians participated as speakers. You can find articles about it (in Spanish), like this one.
One of the topics that interest me the most is how development is promoted and achieved around the world, and how the international society organizes to bring humanitarian aid to the peoples that need it the most in times of crisis and catastrophes. This is why last year I took the course “Humanitarian aid and development” at Institut d’Etudes Politiques (Sciences-Po Paris) in my exchange semester.
While I was living in Paris I heard about the program the organization Mitacs Globalink offers to undergraduate students from around the world. This consists on Research Internships in dozens of Canadian universities; each Globalink Research Intern would assist a professor on a research project for twelve weeks during summer 2015.
I saw Professor Dominique Marshall’s project being offered and due to my interests in humanitarian aid, in the role of NGO’s like Oxfam (which fights inequities around the world and promotes development) and in XX century History, I decided to apply. Some months later I was notified I had been accepted to this program.
Me and a friend promoting a campaign for a NGO that takes care of children who live in the streets
So now I am currently at Carleton University in Ottawa, and as I said before I will be managing the new website for the network, and will make contributions to the current website. If you have any particular suggestion for the website and its content do not hesitate to fill up a contact form or email me at email@example.com. I’m at your service.
Best wishes and enjoy what the Canadian Network on Humanitarian Aid’s website has to offer to you!
Carleton PhD candidate Will Tait attended the conference,where he presented a paper entitled “Earning the Right to be Heard: Christian Evangelicals and Overseas Food Aid and Development, 1974-1986.” With the permission of the organisers, Will has shared many documents he brought back from this Conference. He writes: “One theme that I did find interesting coming out in the conference papers and the workshops was the legal means by which states are countering the growing influence of NGO’s. Examples were the new Russian “foreign agent” law and the Indian Government Intelligence Bureau Report of 2014. All of this made me think of Bill C-51 at home and how the intentional vagueness of such laws gives exceptional leeway in countering views deemed against the national interest, especially in resource and energy sectors. It also made me think about the power of unelected NGOs despite their lack of status as legal entities under international law as well as issues of sovereignty.”
WATCH the video recording of Jean-Marie Fardeau, Director, Human Rights Watch – France, about his engagement with NGOs. (m4v, 12 min approx). From Left to Right : Moderator: Prof. Ruchi Anand, American Graduate School in Paris; Dr. Rahel Steinbach, Programme Officer, United Nations Environment Program (UNEP); Jean-Marie Fardeau, Director, Human Rights Watch – France ; Prof. Susan Perry, American University of Paris.
LISTEN to the entire Keynote Panel (m4a, 1hr approx)
Saturday, May 30 2015 from 9:00 AM to 5:30 PM (EDT), 1125@carleton, fourth floor, HCI building, Carleton University , 1125 Colonel By Drive , Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6
Commemorative stamps for Wilfred Grenfell, British medical missionary in Newfoundland from 1892 to the 1930s, with the The Royal National Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen. See http://www.grenfell-properties.com/
Dear Canadian colleagues interested in the history of humanitarian aid, As you are in the process for making your plans for traveling to Ottawa for Congress 2015 in early June, we are pleased to announce that Carleton will host the second small workshop for Canadians interested in the matter. This will be the occasion to: – exchange our respective research, practices and collections between historians, archivists and humanitarians; – take store of the projects of our partners in Europe, thanks to the presence of Kevin O’Sullivan, from the University of Ireland in Gallway; – think about improvements to the project of the common website we put together last summer; – help prepare the collaborative research grant I am putting together for the fall on researching, collecting and teaching the history of humanitarian aid in Canada There will be refreshments and food for lunch and breaks, the possibility of small grants for the extra nights for graduate students (do write to me if you would like to apply with a possible amount). Please register for the event here.
Thanks to the coordinating work of Sarah Glassford, Will Tait and Jill-Campbell-Miller, Congress will have at least three sessions of interest for our groups:
Co-sponsored by the Canadian Association for the Study of International Development (CASID) and the Canadian Council on Migration, Ethnicity and Transnationalism / Coparrainée par l’Association canadienne d’études du développement international (ACÉDI) et par le Comité canadien sur la migration, l’éthnicité et le transnationalisme
We are looking forward to seeing you all.
The Collection Shaping the Transnational Sphere was just published out of a rich workshop organized by Davide Rodogno, Bernhard Struck and Jakob Vogel.
Here is the table of content:
Davide Rodogno, Bernhard Struck and Jakob Vogel
PART I: EXPERTS
Chapter 1. Professionalism or Proselytism? Catholic “Internationalists” in the Nineteenth Century
Chapter 2. Sanitizing the City: Transnational Work and Networks of French Sanitary Engineers, 1890s-1930s
Chapter 3. Policy Communities and Exchanges across Borders: The Case of Workplace Accidents at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
Chapter 4. The Rise of Coordinated Action for Children in War and Peace: Experts at the League of Nations, 1924-1945
PART II: NETWORKS
Chapter 5. Building a Transnational Network of Social Reform in the Nineteenth Century
Chris Leonards and Nico Randeraad
Chapter 6. The Politics of Expertise: The Association Internationale pour le Progrès des Sciences Sociales, Democratic Peace Movement and International Law Networks in Europe, 1858-1873
Chapter 7. The Road from Damascus: Transnational Jewish Philanthropic Organizations and the Jewish Mass Migration from Eastern Europe, 1840–1914
Chapter 8. From Peace Advocacy to International Relations Research: The Transformation of Transatlantic Philanthropic Networks, 1900-1930
PART III: ISSUES
Chapter 9. Transnational Cooperation and Criminal Policy. The Prison Reform Movement 1820s to 1950s
Chapter 10. International Congresses of Education and the Circulation of Pedagogical Knowledge in Western Europe, 1880-1914
Chapter 11. From Transnational Reformist Network to International Organization: The International Associations for Labour Legislation and the International Labour Organization, 1900-1930s
Chapter 12. Shaping Poland: Relief and Rehabilitation Programmes Undertaken by Foreign Organizations, 1918-1922
Davide Rodogno, Francesca Piana and Shaloma Gautier
And here is the introduction of my piece:
“As Edward Fuller was compiling the third edition of the International Handbook of Child Care and Protection in 1928, he received a note from ‘an official of one of the states’ of whom he had asked ‘questions as to “child welfare” activity’. ‘We do not know what you mean by “child welfare”’, his correspondent had replied. Yet, pondered Fuller, that state harboured ‘public and private activities for the care and protection of children’. In a text that promoted the exchange of information and the production of uniform statistics, Fuller also noted that ‘word agreement’ was urgently required.[ii] This chapter considers a network of experts and transnational advocacy groups that gathered to realize these aims. This network, which included Fuller, was created and operated by the Child Welfare Committee (CWC) of the League of Nations,[iii] an appointed body of national delegates and independent ‘assessors’ from voluntary organizations that met eleven times in Geneva, from its creation in 1924 until the interruption of the activities of the League in 1939.
Endowed with a relatively small budget, the Child Welfare Committee was entrusted with a set of universal standards that had been adopted in the year of its creation by the General Assembly of the League of Nations – the Declaration of the Rights of the Child. The committee was to establish detailed norms, conduct inquiries, organize conferences and contribute to the construction of new institutions. A corresponding and relatively small number of permanent employees of the Social Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations were to ensure the implementation of the wishes of the committee. Child welfare was one of the six domains of the Social Section, headed, until 1931, by Dame Rachel Crowdy, a British charitable worker associated with Armenian relief and leader of the British Voluntary Aid Detachment during the First World War. Crowdy was then replaced by the Danish lawyer, diplomat and humanitarian Erik Einan Ekstrand. Only one member of the staff of the League worked solely on questions of child protection, the Belgian Andrée Colin, former secretary of the Brussels-based International Association for the Promotion of Child Welfare.[iv] The Child Welfare Committee also answered to the Fifth Committee of the General Assembly of the League, on ‘Social and General Questions’.
This chapter identifies the variety of traditions that informed the work of transnational child-welfare experts, the kind of expertise they claimed to possess, and the nature, methods and objects of concern of the institutions and networks they helped to put in place. The discussion uses the tools of a cultural history of knowledge that is attentive to the elaboration of legitimate expertise, of a history of transnationalism that considers networks as hybrid and polyvalent and of a history of state formation that considers public institutions as a variety of bodies with relative autonomy in reciprocal relations with the wider political culture.[v] The reflections in this chapter on such deep relationships between the constitution of expertise and the wider transformations of political cultures are mostly informed by the history of Canadian public life.
[i] This chapter is part of a history of child welfare diplomacy around the League of Nations’ Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and its Child Welfare Committee that is funded by the following agencies, which I thank: Social Science and Research Council of Canada, Leverhulme Trust, Institute of Historical Research and Carleton University Internal Research and Travel Grants. It has benefited from the comments of Pierre-Yves Saunier and Johannes Pullman, and from the revisions of James Braun, research assistant.
[ii] Edward Fuller (ed.), The International Handbook of Child Care and Protection (3rd edn, London 1928), vii–xii.
[iii] In 1924, the new Child Welfare Committee was paired with the Advisory Committee on the Traffic in Women and Children, which the League had absorbed in 1922; together they formed the Advisory Commission for the Protection and Welfare of Children and Young People. The national members were to work on both issues, but the assessors were nominated for only one. The name changed again in 1936 to ‘Advisory Committee on Social Questions’, now a single committee. H. Aufricht, Guide to League of Nations Publications: A Bibliographical Survey of the Work of the League, 1920–1947 (New York 1951), 200–11. The general information also comes from LONSEA: Searching the Globe though the Lenses of the League of Nations, http://www.lonsea.de/pub.
[iv] The International Association for the Promotion of Child Welfare (French title: Association internationale de protection de l’enfance [AIPE]) had been founded in 1921 to bring together members of the Belgian, French, Italian, Luxemburg and French governments and private individuals. Fuller, International Handbook, 584–85. Andrée Colin headed its office, called the Office international de la protection de l’enfance.
[v] M. Poovey, Making a Social Body: British Cultural Formation 1830–1864 (Chicago 1995); S. Gunn, History and Cultural Theory (Harlow 2006); E. Zimmermann, ‘Intellectual Elites’ in Palgrave Dictionary of Transnational History, eds A. Iriye and P.-Y. Saunier (Basingstoke 2009), 547–50; P. Abrams, Historical Sociology (near Shepton Mallet, Somerset 1982); Ann Showstack Sassoon, ‘Gramsci’ and ‘Hegemony’ and V.G. Kiernan, ‘Intellectuals’ in Dictionary of Marxist Thought, ed. T. Bottomore (Oxford 1991), 221–23, 229–31 and 258–60 respectively; D. Rodogno, B. Struck and J. Vogel, ‘Introduction’ in this volume.
Two members of our Canadian Network of the History of Humanitarian Aid organized this lunch talk today. Click HERE to listen (47 mn).
Dr. Kevin Brushett, Assistant Professor of History and Chair of the Military and Strategic Studies Programme at Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, spoke on the early history of the Canadian International Development Agency. He was introduced by Greg Donaghy, Head of the Historical Section at Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.
The talk was held at DFADT, Sussex Drive, Ottawa on January 15, 2015.
Thanks to Will Tait, PhD candidate and Contract Instructor in History at Carleton University for the recording.
Here is what Dr. Donaghy wrote in advance of the talk:
Bruschett works gives “a glimpse at the struggle to define Canada’s international development program during the 1960s and early 1970s. Professor Brushett explores the interactions between government officials from External Affairs, the foreign aid bureaucracy, and young activists from Canada’s emerging non-governmental sector as they tangled during this foundational “golden age” over the nature and evolution of Canadian aid policy. Focused on recurring tensions in aid policy, this study helps illuminate persistent debates over the direction and form of Canadian international development assistance by grounding them in their historical context.
A graduate of Queen’s University, Dr. Brushett is an Assistant Professor of History at Royal Military College where he teaches modern Canadian and American history. He is currently completing a manuscript on the Company of Young Canadians, a community development program established by then Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson’s government in 1965. The present talk is drawn from a new research project examining the growth and performance of Canadian international development policies between 1965 and 1995 through the lens of the Canadian International Development Agency’s Non-Governmental Organization Branch.”
Last June, four of Bettina’s former graduate students met at the Canadian Historical Association‘s Annual meeting the time of a roundtable about her work. The oldest of them all, I spoke – in French – of the way she supervised my research in the late 1980s, and about supervision in general. Labour/Le travail published our roundtable this week. You may read our contributions here.
In addition, thanks to the tireless radio work of Sean Graham, Active History posted an audio recording of the roundtable last month, which included, at the end, Bettina’s own comments.
Some of these thoughts were about retirement, a topic about which the President of the American Historical Association, Jan Goldstein, wrote eloquently about in her October 2014 column of the AHA’s Bulletin, Perspectives on History, in generous ways that converged with Bettina’s.
Bettina is retiring shortly, and she gave a talk on her work at her university, York, last year, entitled “Twists, Turns and Tall Shoulders”
Her colleagues organized a symposium on her work last Winter, with a wonderful program. You can find the program here..
She also became a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada last year, and gave a shorter talk then.
The website is now available since July 13 at the following address: http://www.mobilityhistories.ca
We would be delighted if you could take a look at the exhibit and add your thoughts on how we can encourage interdisciplinary discussion of technology, mobility, and accessibility. Please feel free to forward this email to others who you feel would also be interested.
Our research assistant Dorothy Smith will present a poster and a talk on the project on the history of the wheelchair in Canada at the Accessibility Summit, from July 13 to July 15, 2014, at Ottawa’s Convention Centre.
Her poster will be on display for the duration.
The Wheelchair: An Artifact History of Disability in Canada
Carleton University’s virtual exhibit on wheelchair history in Canada asks the viewer to see the narratives created by medical and social models of disability as well as changes in technology, users, societal assumptions and behaviours over time. The goal is to encourage one to examine “intersectionalities” between people with disabilities, environmental, attitudinal, and technological change. As well, it seeks to while alert non-professionals to the ways disability is constructed out of impairment.
Her talk will be on July 13, at 2:45.
Session: World of Good Practices (Room: 206 + 208, level 2)
A fast paced, information packed session designed to share good practices and innovative approaches. Presenters will share their solutions to the challenges faced when creating greater accessibility and inclusion in the community, workplace, learning and living environments.
Retrofitting Cadboro Beach
Stefanie Barber (Canada)
Measure of Accessibility to Urban Infrastructure
Stephanie Gamache, Occupational Therapist, M.Sc., PH.D., Universite Laval (Canada)
Castle on a Hill: Balancing accessibility with cultural landscape and natural environments
Dorota Grudniewicz, Project Manager Landscape Architect, National Capital Commission (Canada)
The Role of the Disability Community in Creating Social Change: The AODA Experience (media presentation)
David Lepofsky, University of Toronto (Canada)
The Wheelchair: An Artifact History of Disability in Canada
Dorothy-Jane Smith, Research Assistant, Carleton University (Canada)
Best Practices for Post-Production and Emerging Forms of Described Video
Robert Pearson, Director, Accessible Media Inc. (Canada)
The Development, Testing and Refinement of the School Accessibility Tool (SAT)
Nicole Yantzi, Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Studies, Laurentian University (Canada)
A Person Centered and Social Capital Approach to Community Inclusion for People with Intellectual Disabilities
Keenan Wellar, Co-Leader and Director of Communications, LiveWorkPlay (Canada)
I am helping to supervise the research on technologies of disability in Canada. Dorothy Smith is working on the history of the wheelchair in Canada, with the help of Design engineer Adrian Chan and Social Work Professor Roy Hanes.
We would like to recognize a major partner, Dr. David Pantalony, curator of Physical Sciences and Medicine at the Canada Science and Technology Museum. His support gave us access to the core artifacts found in the exhibit
As well, we thank the Carleton Centre for Public History who is hosting the exhibit on their website DH@CWorks (http://omeka.dhcworks.ca/exhibits/show/wheelchairhistorycanada).
Thanks also to Carleton University for funding this collaborative project through the CIF.
More on Disability Studies
I wrote a short review of the work done by historians of disability and the Canadian Disability Studies Association for the Bulletin of the Canadian Historical Association of May 2013: click HERE for versions in French and in English.
Carleton is starting its new minor in Disability Studies this September. To learn more, click HERE